Raising & Planishing
Raising and planishing are the processes used to make hollow forms such as cups and bowls from flat sheets of metal. Raising is done cold, in stages called courses, which gradually bring up the sides by hammering the metal on anvils and metal forms called stakes. The piece is hardened during each course and requires annealing to continue. Annealing is a heat treating process that renders the metal soft for further working. While raising gives the piece its general shape, planishing is a smoothing process for finishing raised shapes with special dome faced hammers. Planishing refines the raised piece by removing irregularities, creating a uniform finish and replacing the rougher raising hammer marks with the hammer texture traditionally associated with handcrafted work. Raising and planishing are some of our specialties here at Newman Metalworks.
There are many different types and shapes of hammers. Two such examples are forming hammers, which give shape to metal and planishing hammers, which smooth metal forms.
A stake is a steel or wood form that is used in shaping metal. Metal is hammered on the stake to form different hollow forms and curves. Thus, stakes come in many shapes and sizes to help create different shapes.